World Trade Center Mass And Potential Energy

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World Trade Center Seismic Signal

World Trade Center Demolition

World Trade Center Concrete

World Trade Center Debris Field Distribution

World Trade Center Debris Pile Mass and Volume

World Trade Center Demolition Energy Requirements

Energy Required To Crush Concrete

Can a collapsing building melt steel?


Mass And Energy Estimates:

MassAndPeWtc.pdf WTC_LDEO_KIM.pdf fema403_ch2.pdf World Trade Center Jet Impact Kinetic Energy
Gravitational Potential Energy 480,600MJ [1] 10^11J = 100,000MJ [2] 4*10^11J = 400,000MJ [4]
Mass 317,500 short tons = 288,031,000kg [1]
Jet Kinetic Energy 2*10^9J = 2,000MJ [3] 2,358MJ and 3,585MJ

[1] The in-service mass of Tower 1 (North Tower) of the World Trade is found to be 288,100 metric tons (317,500 short tons). The potential energy above the 1st floor is found to be 480,600 MJ. http://journalof911studies.com/volume/200703/GUrich/MassAndPeWtc.pdf p23


[2] The gravitational potential energy associated with the collapse of each tower is at least 10^11J. http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/LCSN/Eq/20010911_WTC/WTC_LDEO_KIM.pdf p5


[3] The seismic energy of a ML 0.7 to 0.9 computed for the impacts is a tiny fraction of the kinetic energy of each aircraft, about 2*10^9J. That associated with the combustion of 50 to 100 tons of fuel in each aircraft is roughly 10^12 J, most of which was expended in the large fireballs (visible in TV images) and in subsequent burning that ignited material in each tower. Less than a millionth of the fuel energy was converted to seismic waves. http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/LCSN/Eq/20010911_WTC/WTC_LDEO_KIM.pdf p5


[4] Construction of WTC 1 resulted in the storage of more than 4*10^11 joules of potential energy over the 1,368-foot height of the structure. Of this, approximately 8*10^99 joules of potential energy were stored in the upper part of the structure, above the impact floors, relative to the lowest point of impact. http://www.fema.gov/pdf/library/fema403_ch2.pdf p27



In-Service Mass of WTC1: 288,100 metric tons (288,100,000kg or 283,550 long tons or 317,576 short tons)

Potential Energy Of WTC1: 4.806x10^11 joules (480,600 MJ 133,500 kWh)

Mass of structural steel in each tower: 100,000 short tons per building

Mass of concrete in each tower: 87,446 short tons per building


The in-service mass of Tower 1 (North Tower) of the World Trade is found to be 288,100 metric tons (288,100,000kg or 283,550 long tons or 317,576 short tons). The potential energy above the 1st floor is found to be 4.806x10^11 joules (480,600 MJ 133,500 kWh). MassAndPeWtc.pdf


Construction of WTC 1 resulted in the storage of more than 4x10^11 joules (400,000 MJ) of potential energy over the 1,368-foot height of the structure. Of this, approximately 8x10^9 joules (8000 MJ or 2%) of potential energy were stored in the upper part of the structure, above the impact floors, relative to the lowest point of impact. fema.gov_p27


NIST gives the total weight of structural steel in the two WTC towers as 200,000 tons. (100,000 tons/tower) http://journalof911studies.com/volume/200703/GUrich/MassAndPeWtc.pdf p6


The gravitational potential energy associated with the collapse of each tower is at least 10^11 joules. The energy propagated as seismic waves for ML 2.3 is about 10^6 to 10^7 joules. Hence, only a very small portion of the potential energy was converted into seismic waves. Most of the energy went into deformation of buildings and the formation of rubble and dust. The perception of people in the vicinity of the collapses as reported in the media seems to be in full accord with the notion that ground shaking was not a major contributor to the collapse or damage to surrounding buildings. The seismic energy of a ML 0.7 to 0.9 computed for the impacts is a tiny fraction of the kinetic energy of each aircraft, about 2x10^9 joules. That associated with the combustion of 50 to 100 tons of fuel in each aircraft is roughly 10^12 joules, most of which was expended in the large fireballs (visible in TV images) and in subsequent burning that ignited material in each tower. Less than a millionth of the fuel energy was converted to seismic waves. http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/LCSN/Eq/20010911_WTC/WTC_LDEO_KIM.pdf p5

The kinetic energy of Flight 11 which hit the North Tower (WTC1) was about 2.358x10^9 joules (2358 MJ 655 kWh). World Trade Center Jet Impact Kinetic Energy

The kinetic energy of Flight 175 South Tower (WTC2) was about 3.585x10^9 joules (3585 MJ 996 kWh). World Trade Center Jet Impact Kinetic Energy



The energy propagated as seismic waves for ML 2.3 is about 10^6 to 10^7J. http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/LCSN/Eq/20010911_WTC/WTC_LDEO_KIM.pdf p5

Human-inhabited buildings are typically comprised of about 70% air and 30% structural elements and contents. STUDY 8-06 w clarif as of 9-8-06 .pdf implosionworld.com_p5 Article-WTC_STUDY_8-06_w_clarif_as_of_9-8-06_unlocked.pdf


Additional World Trade Center Mass And Potential Energy Information

Each tower contained about 100,000 tons of steel and 4 in. of concrete topping on the 40,000-sq-ft floors, according to Henry H. Deutch, assistant to the chief structural engineer for construction manager Tishman Realty & Construction Co. Inc., New York City, during the construction of the WTC and currently head of HHD Consultants Inc., Osceola County, Fla. (enr.com)

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