World Trade Center Dust Microspheres

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World Trade Center Dust

World Trade Center Dust Images

WTC Microsphere Images 2.8x

WTC Microsphere Images 8.0x

WTC Microsphere Images 11.5x

Thermite

Fly Ash

MJ 08 Dust Study

JK 08 Dust Study

World Trade Center 7 Steel Samples Show Severe Damage Due To A High Temperature Corrosion Attack Which Melted The Steel

World Trade Center Tower Steel Sample Shows Severe Damage Due To A High Temperature Corrosion Attack Which Melted The Steel



molybdenum (2726C) http://journalof911studies.com/articles/WTCHighTemp2.pdf

iron (1500C) 2003-12-01 - RJ Lee Group Inc. - Damage Assessment 130 Liberty Street Property WTC Dust Signature Report Composition and Morphology, Summary Report, Prepared for: Deutsche Bank (link)


http://www.journalof911studies.com/volume/2008/Ryan_NIST_and_Nano-1.pdf


Typical office dust is composed heavily of organic and other carbon-rich particulate materials. WTC Dust, conversely, contains very little pristine organic fibrous or particulate material. Much of the organic or polymeric content of the WTC Dust has been heat hydrolyzed and partially consumed or burned. Therefore, a residual vesicular type of carbonaceous component persists in the WTC Dust. In addition to the vesicular carbon components, the high heat exposure of the WTC Dust has also created other morphologically specific varieties of particulate matter including spherical metallic, vesicular siliceous and spherical fly ash components. These types of particles are classic examples of high temperature or combustion by-products and are generally absent in typical office dust. 2003-12-01 - RJ Lee Group Inc. - Damage Assessment 130 Liberty Street Property WTC Dust Signature Report Composition and Morphology, Summary Report, Prepared for: Deutsche Bank (link)


RJLee_Figure2_Figure3.png

Figure 2 shows a typical loading on a lift sample collected from a Background Building and Figure 3 shows the particle loading of a lift sample collected from a WTC Dust impacted location within the Building. The images in these figures depict the same magnification. The shear amount or dust loading differential between the two samples is obvious. At higher magnifications, it can be seen that materials residing on the WTC Dust lifts possess morphological characteristics that are different from the Background Building samples. The particulate components on the WTC Dust sample appear angular or pulverized and accompany spherical heat affected particles. Also, the fibrous component exhibited in the WTC Dust sample is largely absent from the Background Building sample. 2003-12-01 - RJ Lee Group Inc. - Damage Assessment 130 Liberty Street Property WTC Dust Signature Report Composition and Morphology, Summary Report, Prepared for: Deutsche Bank (link)



Organic components comprise a significant portion of the total particulate and fibrous material associated with the Background Building samples. This type of matter comprises only a trace amount within the WTC Dust. The WTC Dust contains hydrolyzed or partially consumed components of carbonaceous material exhibiting a vesicular typically sub-spherical morphology. 2003-12-01 - RJ Lee Group Inc. - Damage Assessment 130 Liberty Street Property WTC Dust Signature Report Composition and Morphology, Summary Report, Prepared for: Deutsche Bank (link)



Particles that either were formed as a consequence of high temperature or were modified by exposure to high temperature are important WTC Dust Markers for WTC Dust. Fires that were a part of the WTC Event produced combustion-modified products that traveled with other components of WTC Dust. Considering the high temperatures reached during the destruction of the WTC, the following three types of combustion products would be expected to be present in WTC Dust. These products are:

• Vesicular carbonaceous particles primarily from plastics

• Iron-rich spheres from iron-bearing building components or contents

• High temperature aluminosilicate from building materials

There were considerable amounts of plastics in the WTC buildings, that upon heating and liberation of volatiles produced spherical (or nearly so) carbonrich particles with vesicles related to emission of volatiles. Figure 18 shows typical carbonaceous materials from a Background Building and Figure 19 shows porous heat affected particulate in the WTC Dust. Figure 20 shows a PLM image of porous heat affected particulate in the WTC Dust. 2003-12-01 - RJ Lee Group Inc. - Damage Assessment 130 Liberty Street Property WTC Dust Signature Report Composition and Morphology, Summary Report, Prepared for: Deutsche Bank (link)



Various metals (most notably iron and lead) were melted during the WTC Event, producing spherical metallic particles. Exposure of phases to high heat results in the formation of spherical particles due to surface tension. Figure 21 and Figure 22 show a spherical iron particle resulting from the melting of iron (or steel). 2003-12-01 - RJ Lee Group Inc. - Damage Assessment 130 Liberty Street Property WTC Dust Signature Report Composition and Morphology, Summary Report, Prepared for: Deutsche Bank (link)



Normal background Fe Sphere dust content (Mean of Composition %) is 0.04% the wtc dust has a 5.87% mean composition of Iron Spheres. 2003-12-01 - RJ Lee Group Inc. - Damage Assessment 130 Liberty Street Property WTC Dust Signature Report Composition and Morphology, Summary Report, Prepared for: Deutsche Bank (link)


Editors Note: By my calculation, this means the World Trade Center dust contains 146 times as many iron microspheres as normal office dust.


http://journalof911studies.com/volume/2007/JenkinsFe-DustSupplemental.pdf


http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1165/table_1.html


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