Thermite

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A danish scientist Niels Harrit, on nano-thermite in the WTC dust: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8_tf25lx_3o

http://s3.amazonaws.com/nasathermalimages/public/video/Pretext_WTC2_molten_metal.wmv

9/11: Stabilized WTC2 molten metal (Cameraplanet): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m0qW6--1XX4

9/11: Stabilized WTC2 molten metal (NIST FOIA - Luigi Cazzaniga #46): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=22eKBTfW2zY

The Destruction Of Each World Trade Center Tower Generated A Hot Density Current

World Trade Center Dust

World Trade Center Dust Microspheres

World Trade Center 7 Steel Samples Show Severe Damage Due To A High Temperature Corrosion Attack Which Melted The Steel

World Trade Center Tower Steel Sample Shows Severe Damage Due To A High Temperature Corrosion Attack Which Melted The Steel

World Trade Center Hot Spots

WTC "Meteorites"

Nanothermite

Pre-Collapse Pressure Pulses, Sudden Smoke Flows and Unusual Fire Behavior

The People Inside The World Trade Center Towers Were Blown To Pieces

World Trade Center Dust Microspheres

MJ 08 Dust Study

World Trade Center Dust 1,3-diphenylpropane Content

The Dust Of The World Trade Center Contains Explosives

NIST Did Not Test The World Trade Center Debris For Explosives

MoO3,Al

Iron Fire

Journal Publications

Thermite Igniters


Naval "National Center for Energetics" Records Of Pre-9/11 Nano-Energetic Materials Development, Nonexistent Or Destroyed: http://www.911blogger.com/node/20522

Study: Scientists Discover Active Thermitic Material in WTC Dust: http://stj911.org/press_releases/ActiveThermiticMaterial.html

Environmental anomalies at the World Trade Center evidence for energetic materials http://www.springerlink.com/content/f67q6272583h86n4/

The Environmentalist Monday, August 04, 2008

Answers to Objections and Questions Steven E. Jones, Ph.D. Physicist and Archaeometrist July 18, 2006: http://www.journalof911studies.com/articles/JonesAnswersQuestionsWorldTradeCenter.pdf

Nanothermites and WTC dust: http://911blogger.com/node/18935

The Top Ten Connections Between NIST and Nano-Thermites: http://www.journalof911studies.com/volume/2008/Ryan_NIST_and_Nano-1.pdf

New paper at Journal of 9/11 Studies: “The Top Ten Connections Between NIST and Nano-Thermites”: http://www.911blogger.com/node/16483

The Top Ten Connections Between NIST and Nano-Thermites by Kevin Ryan: http://www.911blogger.com/node/16497

Linear Thermite Cutting Charges: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wn-MCCZ3O1M

Nanotechnology: 9/11 and the Future: http://www.911blogger.com/node/19396

Thermite torch cutting nozzle: http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6805832.html

Nanoscale Chemistry Yields Better Explosives: https://www.llnl.gov/str/RSimpson.html

http://www.mrs.org/s_mrs/sec_subscribe.asp?CID=6226&DID=172136&action=detail

Nanotechnology: A Brief Technology Analysis:

Nanoenergetics is a new field in which nanoaluminum particles are used as more effective explosives. Just as with the suntan products, the nanoaluminum presents a higher surface area to volume of the material. This means that when ignited a greater volume of the aluminum achieves chemical reaction, releasing its energy, and generating a larger explosion per pound of material. ctonet.org

COMBUSTION OF CONSOLIDATED AND CONFINED METASTABLE INTERMOLECULAR COMPOSITES: http://pdf.aiaa.org/preview/CDReadyMASM05_666/PV2005_275.pdf

AMPTIAC Quarterly DOD Researchers Provide A Look Inside Nanotechnology - Spring 2002: http://www.p2pays.org/ref/34/33115.pdf

Weldable primer compositions and processes employing same: http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/srchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=3874921.PN.&OS=PN/3874921&RS=PN/3874921 and http://www.google.com/patents?id=AXg-AAAAEBAJ&dq=patent:3874921&as_drrb_ap=q&as_minm_ap=1&as_miny_ap=2008&as_maxm_ap=1&as_maxy_ap=2008&as_drrb_is=q&as_minm_is=1&as_miny_is=2008&as_maxm_is=1&as_maxy_is=2008

US Patent 6183569 - Cutting torch and associated methods: http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/6183569.html

AN-M14 TH3 incendiary hand grenade: http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/m14-th3.htm

Incendiary devices for producing controlled-diameter holes in metallic targets: http://www.dodtechmatch.com/DOD/Patent/PatentDetail.aspx?type=description&id=6766744

Using plasma ARC and thermite to demolish concrete: http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5532449.html

USS Liberty - Oral History Interview - CTCL Paddy Rhoads - 13 June 1980: http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/uss_liberty/interviews/interview_p_rhodes.pdf


When thermite reaction compounds are used to ignite a fire, they produce a characteristic burn pattern, and leave behind evidence. These compounds are rather unique in their chemical composition, containing common elements such as copper, iron, calcium, silicon and aluminum, but also contain more unusual elements, such as vanadium, titanium, tin, fluorine and manganese. While some of these elements are consumed in the fire, many are also left behind in the residue. (source)


Energetic nanocomposites are a class of materials that have both a fuel and oxidizer component intimately mixed and where at least one of the component phases has particle sizes with nanometer dimensions (< 100 nm). A sol-gel derived pyrotechnic is an example of an energetic nanocomposite, in which metal-oxide nanoparticles react with nanometer-sized fuel metals in very exothermic reactions. The fuel reside within the pores of the solid matrix while the oxidizer is the skeletal matrix.


The sol-gel formulations allow for intimate mixing of oxidizer and fuel components at the nanoscale level and have the potential for water processing. This methodology is used to make pyrotechnic materials with superior performance than existing formulations, while incorporating all the safety and low toxicity considerations of water or other environmentally acceptable processing solvent-based systems.


Modern technology, through sol-gel chemistry, provides an approach to control structures at the nanometer scale, thus enabling the formation of new energetic materials, generally having improved, exceptional, or entirely new properties. In general, initiation and detonation properties of energetic materials are dramatically affected by their microstructural properties. Here, we exploit sol-gel chemistry as a route to process energetic materials. Attractive features of the sol-gel approach for energetic material processing are that it offers the possibility to precisely control of oxidizer-fuel compositions and produce composites with extremely well dispersed and intimately mixed component phases. To accomplish this we have invented a new method of making nanostructured energetic materials, specifically explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, using sol-gel chemistry. By minimizing the particle size of the oxidizers and fuels (energetic nanocomposites) we seek to increase the power of high energy density composites. (llnl.gov)


[Nanoenergetic composite] materials have structures that can be controlled on the nanometer (billionth-of-a-meter) scale. Simpson explains, "In general, the smaller the size of the materials being combined, the better the properties of energetic materials. Since these nanocomposite' materials can be easier and much safer to make than those made with traditional methods." (llnl.gov)


Energetic materials are substances that store energy chemically. For instance, oxygen, by itself, is not an energetic material, and neither is fuel such as gasoline. But a combination of oxygen and fuel is. Energetic materials are made in two ways. The first is by physically mixing solid oxidizers and fuels, a process that, in its basics, has remained virtually unchanged for centuries. Such a process results in a composite energetic material such as black powder. The second process involves creating a monomolecular energetic material, such as TNT, in which each molecule contains an oxidizing component and a fuel component. For the composites, the total energy can be much greater than that of monomolecular materials. However, the rate at which this energy is released is relatively slow when compared to the release rate of monomolecular materials. Monomolecular materials such as TNT work fast and thus have greater power than composites, but they have only moderate energy densities-commonly half those of composites. "Greater energy densities versus greater power—that's been the traditional trade-off," says Simpson. "With our new process, however, we're mixing at molecular scales, using grains the size of tens to hundreds of molecules. That can give us the best of both worlds-higher energy densities and high power as well." (llnl.gov)


RSimpson1.gif

https://www.llnl.gov/str/RSimpson.html


To control the mix of oxidizer and fuel in a given material at the nanometer scale, Livermore researchers turned to sol-gel methodologies. Sol-gel chemistry involves the reactions of chemicals in solution to produce nanometer-size particles called sols. These sols are linked together to form a three-dimensional solid network or skeleton called a gel, with the remaining solution residing in the open pores of the gel. The solution can then be supercritically extracted to produce aerogels (highly porous, lightweight solids) or evaporated to create xerogels (denser porous solids).

"A typical gel structure is extremely uniform because the particles and the pores between them are so small," notes Tillotson. "Such homogeneity means that the material's properties are also uniform. Our main interest in the sol-gel approach is that it will allow us to precisely control the composition and morphology of the solid at the nanometer scale so that the material's properties stay uniform throughout-something that can't be achieved with conventional techniques."


Using these sol-gel-processing methods, the team derived four classes of energetic materials: [Energetic Nanocomposites energetic nanocomposites] , [Energetic Nanocrystalline Materials energetic nanocrystalline materials] , [Energetic Powder-entrained Materials energetic powder-entrained materials] , and [Energetic Skeletal Materials energetic skeletal materials] .


[Energetic Nanocomposites Energetic nanocomposites] have a fuel component and an oxidizer component mixed together. One example is a gel made of an oxidizer with a fuel embedded in the pores of the gel. In one such material (termed a thermite pyrotechnic), iron oxide gel reacts with metallic aluminum particles to release an enormous amount of heat. "These reactions typically produce temperatures in excess of 3,500 degrees Celsius," says Simpson. Thermites [World Trade Center Demolition are used for many applications] ranging from igniters in automobile airbags to welding. Such thermites have traditionally been produced by mixing fine powders of metal oxides and metal fuels. "Conventionally, mixing these fine powders can result in an extreme fire hazard. Sol-gel methods can reduce that hazard while dispersing extremely small particles in a uniform way not possible through normal processing methods," adds Simpson. The Livermore team has successfully synthesized metal oxide gels from a myriad elements. At least in the case of metal oxides, sol-gel chemistry can be applied to a majority of elements in the periodic table.

In energetic nanocrystalline composites, the energetic material is grown within the pores of an inert gel rather than mixed into it. One way to initiate the growth is to dissolve the energetic material in the solvent used to control the density of the resulting gel. After the gel is formed, the energetic material in the pore fluid is induced to crystallize within the pores. The Livermore team synthesized nanocrystalline composites in a silica matrix with pores containing the high explosive RDX or PETN. The resulting structures contain crystals so small that they do not scatter visible light and are semitransparent.

In the powder-entraining method, a high concentration of energetic powders (90 percent by weight) is loaded within a support matrix (for example, silica) that takes up a correspondingly small mass. Highly loaded energetic materials are used in a variety of applications, including initiators and detonators. Manufacturing this type of energetic material using current processing technologies is often difficult. Producing detonators with pressed powders is a slow manufacturing process, mixing two or more powders homogeneously is difficult, and precise geometric shapes are not easy to produce. Also, pressing powders is a hazardous process.

Many of these problems may be overcome with the sol-gel process. One result is that the sol-gel explosives formed by adding energetic powders are much less sensitive than those produced by conventional methods. "These results were surprising because conventionally mixed powders generally exhibit increased sensitivity when silica powders are added," says Simpson. "We're still exploring the reasons for this decreased sensitivity, but it appears to be generally true with sol-gel-derived energetic materials."

The final class of energetic material produced by sol-gel methods is energetic skeletal materials. Basically, the sol-gel chemistry is used to create a skeletal matrix, which is itself energetic. Satcher thinks that it might also be possible to form a nanostructure made up of a fuel-oxidizer skeleton with precise stoichiometry (the numerical relationship of elements and compounds as reactants and products in a chemical reaction). "This is something we are still looking into," he adds. In addition to providing materials that have high energy density and are extremely powerful, sol-gel methodologies offer more safe and stable processing. For instance, the materials can be cast to shape or do not require the hazardous machining techniques required by materials that cannot be cast. (llnl.gov)


RSimpson2.gif

https://www.llnl.gov/str/RSimpson.html


sol-gel-2.png

This energy filtered transmission electron micrograph of a sol-gel derived Fe2O3/Al nanocomposites illustrates the extremely fine mixing of oxidizer and fuel achieved via this process. (source)


sol-gel-1.png

Image of the combustion of a sol-gel energetic nanocomposite. (source)


sol-gel-3.png

Schematic representation of a sol-gel derived energetic nanocomposites. In this case the sol-gel network consisits of interconnected nanometer-sized oxidizer and the fuel component resides in the nanometer-sized pores of the framework. (source)



http://awards.lanl.gov/PDFfiles/Super-Thermite_Electric_Matches_2003.pdf

http://www.azonano.com/details.asp?ArticleID=1211

https://e-reports-ext.llnl.gov/pdf/303520.pdf

http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-04112005-151935/unrestricted/dissertation.pdf

https://e-reports-ext.llnl.gov/pdf/242934.pdf

http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2007/02/354149.shtml


http://www.amazingrust.com/Experiments/how_to/Thermite_pics-videos.html

http://www.amazingrust.com/Experiments/how_to/Thermite.html

514661157_4dfde06175_b.jpg

http://www.intdetsymp.org/detsymp2002/PaperSubmit/FinalManuscript/pdf/Brousseau-193.pdf

http://www.technologyreview.com/Nanotech/14105/

http://www.strongweldingproducts.com/broco/m_MTMOD1.html

http://www.navysbir.com/n08_1/N081-020.htm

http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread265740/pg1

Interesting that the director of the red cross on 911, someone who is also involved with anti-terrorist bio warfare drills, as of 2002 working for a company that manufactures Thermite demolition charges! http://911blogger.com/node/12620



Thermite grenades are used by the military as incendiary devices to quickly destroy items or equipment when there is imminent danger of them being captured by enemy forces. Because of the difficulty in igniting standard iron-thermite, plus the fact that it burns with practically no flame and has a small radius of action, standard thermite is rarely used on its own as an incendiary composition. It is more usually employed with other ingredients added to enhance its incendiary effects. Thermate-TH3 is a mixture of thermite and pyrotechnic additives which have been found to be superior to standard thermite for incendiary purposes. Its composition by weight is generally thermite 68.7%, barium nitrate 29.0%, sulphur 2.0% and binder 0.3%


http://www.technologyreview.com/Nanotech/14105/

http://www.lanl.gov/quarterly/q_sum03/explosives.shtml

http://www.journalof911studies.com/volume/200609/Why_Indeed_Did_the_WTC_Buildings_Completely_Collapse_Jones_Thermite_World_Trade_Center.pdf

http://www.itep.ws/pdf/FOI_Rapport.pdf



NIST's Position:

12. Did the NIST investigation look for evidence of the WTC towers being brought down by controlled demolition? Was the steel tested for explosives or thermite residues? The combination of thermite and sulfur (called thermate) "slices through steel like a hot knife through butter."


NIST did not test for the residue of these compounds in the steel.


The responses to questions number 2, 4, 5 and 11 demonstrate why NIST concluded that there were no explosives or controlled demolition involved in the collapses of the WTC towers.


Furthermore, a very large quantity of thermite (a mixture of powdered or granular aluminum metal and powdered iron oxide that burns at extremely high temperatures when ignited) or another incendiary compound would have had to be placed on at least the number of columns damaged by the aircraft impact and weakened by the subsequent fires to bring down a tower. Thermite burns slowly relative to explosive materials and can require several minutes in contact with a massive steel section to heat it to a temperature that would result in substantial weakening. Separate from the WTC towers investigation, NIST researchers estimated that at least 0.13 pounds of thermite would be required to heat each pound of a steel section to approximately 700 degrees Celsius (the temperature at which steel weakens substantially). Therefore, while a thermite reaction can cut through large steel columns, many thousands of pounds of thermite would need to have been placed inconspicuously ahead of time, remotely ignited, and somehow held in direct contact with the surface of hundreds of massive structural components to weaken the building. This makes it an unlikely substance for achieving a controlled demolition.


Analysis of the WTC steel for the elements in thermite/thermate would not necessarily have been conclusive. The metal compounds also would have been present in the construction materials making up the WTC towers, and sulfur is present in the gypsum wallboard that was prevalent in the interior partitions. (source)


http://www.textfiles.com/humor/thermite.ana

http://www.p2pays.org/ref/34/33115.pdf

Linear Thermite Cutting Charges: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wn-MCCZ3O1M

http://www.google.com/patents/about?id=Q8jHAAAAEBAJ&dq=7555986

The CIA and 9/11: Explosive Connections (Part 2): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y8qQzmUGa8o (Part 1)

9/11 Experiments: Eliminate the Impossible: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PwqLu8ZXIX0

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