Structural Steel

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ASTM E119

World Trade Center Buildings Structural Steel

Contemporary Steel Design Vol.1 No.4

Introduction To Steel

1-3D Mechanical Properties.pdf Mechanical Properties Of Structural Steels


Structural Steel has a melting point of 2800F = 1537C = 1811K


11.2.5. What percentage of its total capacity does a steel beam retain when subjected to the heat of a normal fire? At what temperature does steel lose all of its capacity?

The strength of steel remains essentially unchanged until about 600°F (315°C). The steel retains about 50% of its strength at 1100°F (538°C). The steel loses all of its capacity when it melts at about 2700°F (1482°C). However, for design purposes, it is usually assumed that all capacity is lost at about 2200°F (1204°C). aisc.org


11.2.2. Does the grade of steel used affect its response to a fire?

Common structural steel grades exhibit similar deterioration of mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. Thus all structural grades perform in essentially the same way. Over the years, there have been efforts in several countries to introduce a “fire resistant” steel grade into construction. This type of steel reportedly has somewhat improved properties at elevated temperatures. However, the use of this steel remains very limited in construction, mainly because improved mechanical properties of steel at elevated temperatures, in general, do not translate into significant increases in the fire resistance of respective building elements and systems. aisc.org


11.2.3. How does a fire impact steel connections? Does it affect connections differently than the members themselves?

The connections usually contain more material (additional plates, bolts, etc.) than the connected members. Also, connections often have less exposure to heat and higher capacity for heat dissipation because of their proximity to other members. Therefore, temperatures are likely to develop faster in members than in connections, making connections less critical for fire-protection design. aisc.org


Live Load: That part of the total load on structural members that is not a permanent part of the structure. Can be variable, as in the case of loads contributed by the occupancy, wind, seismic and snow loads. excalibursteel.com


Dead Load: The load on a building element contributed by the weight of the building materials. excalibursteel.com


Safety_and_Reliability.pdf_normalized_steel_yield_strength.png

and Reliability.pdf msel.nist.gov


http://www.corusconstruction.com/file_source/Images/Construction/Design and innovation/Structural Design/Fire/Figure 31 240806.gif

corusconstruction.com


http://s3.amazonaws.com/nasathermalimages/public/images/Effect_Of_Heat_On_Structural_Steel-Manual_of_Steel_Construction_6th_Edition_heat^steel01.pdf.png

http://s3.amazonaws.com/nasathermalimages/public/images/Effect_Of_Heat_On_Structural_Steel-Manual_of_Steel_Construction_6th_Edition_heat^steel02.pdf.png

Source: "Manual of Steel Construction" 6th Edition, American Institute of Steel Construction. Copyright 1963, '64, '65, '66,' 67.


Melting Points of Metals

Steel properties at low and high temperatures

Steel Knowledge Base

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/linear-expansion-coefficients-d_95.html

http://www.journalof911studies.com/volume/200703/Sudden_collapse_initiation_impossible.pdf

http://www.911research.wtc7.net/wtc/evidence/metallurgy/index.html

http://www.tf.uni-kiel.de/matwis/amat/mw1_ge/kap_8/backbone/r8_4_1.html

http://www.key-to-steel.com/Articles/Art48.htm

http://web.archive.org/web/20040908012833/http://www.pubs.asce.org/WWWdisplay.cgi?9200334

http://www.key-to-steel.com/default.aspx?ID=CheckArticle&NM=182

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/wtc-microsoft.pdf

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/HERA.pdf

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/HERA-Elaboration.pdf

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/atlan_18.pdf

http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/analysis/fires/steel.html


Abstracts:

Thermal analytical study of steels at high temperature including the range of melting. A. Lindemann, J. Al-Karawi, J. Schmidt. Thermochimica Acta 310(1998) 133-140

High-Temperature Properties of Stainless Steel for Building Structures

The Behaviour of Multi-storey Composite Steel Framed Structures in Response to Compartment Fires

High-Temperature Properties of Fire-Resistant Steel for Buildings (source)


http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/fire/technicalreports.html

on the Behaviour of Multi-storey Composite Steel Framed Structures in

Response to Fires.

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/MAIN.pdf

Report - Behaviour of Steel Framed Structures Under Fire Conditions: http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/masterSL2.pdf

Susan Lamont's PhD Thesis - The Behaviour of Multi-storey Composite Steel Framed Structures in Response to Compartment Fires

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/MGillie.pdf

Gillie's PhD Thesis - The Behaviour of Steel Framed Composite Structures in Fires Conditions

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/MD1.pdf

Abaqus model using beam general sections

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/MD3.pdf

Abaqus model using FEAST shell elements

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/MD4.pdf

ABAQUS grillage model

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/MD5.pdf

ABAQUS shell/shell model

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/MD6.pdf

ABAQUS beam/grillage model

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/MD7.pdf

ABAQUS beam/shell model

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/MD10.pdf

Abaqus model using beam general sections

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/MD12.pdf

BS/Test ABAQUS shell/beam model

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/MD13.pdf

ABAQUS discontinuous shell/beam model

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/MD14.pdf

BS/Test

ABAQUS shell/beam model

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/AM1.pdf

Analysis of Results from BS/TEST 1 models: Part A grillage models

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/AM2.pdf

Analysis of Results from BS/TEST 1 models: Part B half floor models

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/AM3.pdf

Analysis of Results from BS/TEST 1 models: Part C FEAST shell models

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/AM4.pdf

Analysis of Results from BS/TEST 3 models: Part A grillage models

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/AM5.pdf

Analysis of Results from BS/TEST 3 models: Part B half floor models

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/am02.pdf

Analysis of Results from BS/TEST 1 models: Part B

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/am05.pdf

Analysis of Results from BS/TEST 3 models: Part B

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/SM1.pdf

Effect of increasing live load on BS/TEST 1

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/SM2.pdf

Effect of changing steel section in the BS/TEST 1

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/SM3.pdf

Effect of changing boundary conditions on BS/TEST 1

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/SM4.pdf

Effect of changing slab/beam temperature evolution on BS/TEST 1

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/SM5.pdf

FEAST modelling of tensile membrane action

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/SS1.pdf

Development of of generalised stress-strain relationships for the concrete model in grillage model

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/SS2.pdf

Development of of generalised stress-strain relationships for the concrete slab in shell models

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/SS3.pdf

Investigation of membrane-flexure interaction in the Cardington slab at elevated temperature

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/ht.pdf

Heat transfer claculations for slab temperatures in BS/TEST 1 and BS/TEST 4

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/TM1.pdf

performance of redundant structures under local fires.

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/TM2.pdf

Fundamental principles of structural behaviour under thermal effects

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/TM3.pdf

Study of thermal expansion and bowing in a restrained beam

http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/TM4.pdf

of fundamental structural mechanics principles in assessing the Cardington restrained beam test

Temperature and emissivity of a molten pour stream

phasendiagramm_fe2.gif

Phase_diag_iron_carbon.PNG

http://s3.amazonaws.com/nasathermalimages/public/images/Weights_Of_Building_Materials-Manual_of_Steel_Construction_6th_Edition_weight^building^materials.pdf.png

http://www.cisc-icca.ca/GetFile.aspx?aliaspath=/files/publications/techpubs/design/FireFacts/fire

http://www.corusconstruction.com/file_source/StaticFiles/Construction/Library/Fire resistance of steel framed buildings.pdf

http://www.bfrl.nist.gov/pdf/GCR04_872.pdf

https://sourceforge.wpi.edu/sf/wiki/do/viewPage/projects.fp570_ab06/wiki/FireResistanceOfSteel

http://www.matweb.com/search/CompositionSearch.aspx

http://www.aisc.org/Template.cfm?Section=HOME&template=/CustomSource/FAQTOCMain.cfm

http://www.cowtown.net/mikefirth/techspec.htm

http://www.aisc.org/SearchTaxonomy/TechnicalLibraryResults.aspx?topic=386

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