Structural Steel has a melting point of 2800F = 1537C = 1811K
11.2.5. What percentage of its total capacity does a steel beam retain when subjected to the heat of a normal fire? At what temperature does steel lose all of its capacity?
The strength of steel remains essentially unchanged until about 600°F (315°C). The steel retains about 50% of its strength at 1100°F (538°C). The steel loses all of its capacity when it melts at about 2700°F (1482°C). However, for design purposes, it is usually assumed that all capacity is lost at about 2200°F (1204°C). aisc.org
11.2.2. Does the grade of steel used affect its response to a fire?
Common structural steel grades exhibit similar deterioration of mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. Thus all structural grades perform in essentially the same way. Over the years, there have been efforts in several countries to introduce a “fire resistant” steel grade into construction. This type of steel reportedly has somewhat improved properties at elevated temperatures. However, the use of this steel remains very limited in construction, mainly because improved mechanical properties of steel at elevated temperatures, in general, do not translate into significant increases in the fire resistance of respective building elements and systems. aisc.org
11.2.3. How does a fire impact steel connections? Does it affect connections differently than the members themselves?
The connections usually contain more material (additional plates, bolts, etc.) than the connected members. Also, connections often have less exposure to heat and higher capacity for heat dissipation because of their proximity to other members. Therefore, temperatures are likely to develop faster in members than in connections, making connections less critical for fire-protection design. aisc.org
Live Load: That part of the total load on structural members that is not a permanent part of the structure. Can be variable, as in the case of loads contributed by the occupancy, wind, seismic and snow loads. excalibursteel.com
Dead Load: The load on a building element contributed by the weight of the building materials. excalibursteel.com
http://www.corusconstruction.com/file_source/Images/Construction/Design and innovation/Structural Design/Fire/Figure 31 240806.gif
Source: "Manual of Steel Construction" 6th Edition, American Institute of Steel Construction. Copyright 1963, '64, '65, '66,' 67.
Thermal analytical study of steels at high temperature including the range of melting. A. Lindemann, J. Al-Karawi, J. Schmidt. Thermochimica Acta 310(1998) 133-140
on the Behaviour of Multi-storey Composite Steel Framed Structures in
Response to Fires.
Report - Behaviour of Steel Framed Structures Under Fire Conditions: http://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/pdf/fire/masterSL2.pdf
Susan Lamont's PhD Thesis - The Behaviour of Multi-storey Composite Steel Framed Structures in Response to Compartment Fires
Gillie's PhD Thesis - The Behaviour of Steel Framed Composite Structures in Fires Conditions
Abaqus model using beam general sections
Abaqus model using FEAST shell elements
ABAQUS grillage model
ABAQUS shell/shell model
ABAQUS beam/grillage model
ABAQUS beam/shell model
Abaqus model using beam general sections
BS/Test ABAQUS shell/beam model
ABAQUS discontinuous shell/beam model
ABAQUS shell/beam model
Analysis of Results from BS/TEST 1 models: Part A grillage models
Analysis of Results from BS/TEST 1 models: Part B half floor models
Analysis of Results from BS/TEST 1 models: Part C FEAST shell models
Analysis of Results from BS/TEST 3 models: Part A grillage models
Analysis of Results from BS/TEST 3 models: Part B half floor models
Analysis of Results from BS/TEST 1 models: Part B
Analysis of Results from BS/TEST 3 models: Part B
Effect of increasing live load on BS/TEST 1
Effect of changing steel section in the BS/TEST 1
Effect of changing boundary conditions on BS/TEST 1
Effect of changing slab/beam temperature evolution on BS/TEST 1
FEAST modelling of tensile membrane action
Development of of generalised stress-strain relationships for the concrete model in grillage model
Development of of generalised stress-strain relationships for the concrete slab in shell models
Investigation of membrane-flexure interaction in the Cardington slab at elevated temperature
Heat transfer claculations for slab temperatures in BS/TEST 1 and BS/TEST 4
performance of redundant structures under local fires.
Fundamental principles of structural behaviour under thermal effects
Study of thermal expansion and bowing in a restrained beam
of fundamental structural mechanics principles in assessing the Cardington restrained beam test
http://www.corusconstruction.com/file_source/StaticFiles/Construction/Library/Fire resistance of steel framed buildings.pdf