AVIRIS Related Published Papers

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Estimating the Expressed Temperature and Fractional Area of Hot Lava at the Kilauea Vent with AVIRIS Spectral Measurements

Robert O. Green

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109

(paper) (cached_copy)

USGS Environmental Studies of the World Trade Center Area, New York City, after September 11, 2001:


Images of the World Trade Center Site Show Thermal Hot Spots on September 16 and 23, 2001.:


Environmental Studies of the World Trade Center area after the September 11, 2001 attack.:


"Engineering and Organizational Issues Related to the World Trade Center Terrorist Attack: Overview of Damage to Buildings Near Ground Zero"

Michael Bruneau, Andrew Wittaker, Andrei Reinhorn


Preliminary Survey of Air Quality and Related Health Studies Conducted in the Vicinity of Ground Zero:


The NASA multispectral remote sensing AVIRIS instrument (Dr. Diane Wickland, dwicklan mail.hq.nasa.gov) completed a final flight over the WTC and Staten Island area on September 23. Data from the flight were processed at JPL for "hot spot" updates (Dr. Robert Green, rog mail2.jpl.nasa.gov) and at USGS/Denver for analysis of the distribution of contaminants from the debris (Dr. Roger Clark, rclark usgs.gov). The AVIRIS data over the area was processed for 311 possible signatures of materials that the EPA is interested in identifying. Preliminary analysis by USGS of the plume indicated that asbestos was not a significant constituent of the plume. The USGS has established a password protected web site to provide appropriate access to the data. Ongoing.

Remote Sensing in Response to September 11th:

Charles K. Huyck and Dr. Beverley J. Adams


Remote sensing technology has been widely recognized for contributing to emergency response efforts following the World Trade Center attack on September 11th, 2001. The need to coordinate an event of this magnitude, in a dense yet relatively small area, made the combination of imagery and data maps very powerful. This paper evaluates the role played by airborne and satellite imagery at Ground Zero. It examines how these data were used by emergency managers within a GIS environment, including their integration with other GIS datasets. It goes on to present further ways in which the data could have been used. A summary is given of the lessons learned, together with steps that should be taken to maximize the effectiveness of remote sensing in the future events. Interviews with key emergency management and GIS personnel provide the basis of this paper. An expanded discussion is available in the MCEER/NSF report "Emergency Response in the Wake of World Trade Center Attacks: The Remote Sensing Perspective" (see Huyck and Adams, 2002).

Airborne remote spectrometry support to rescue personnel at "Ground Zero" after the World Trade Center attack on September 11, 2001

Simi, Christopher G., Hill, Anthony B., Kling, Henry, Zadnik, Jerome A., Sviland, Marc D., Williams, Mary M., Lewis, Paul E.,

Publication: Imaging Spectrometry VIII. Edited by Shen, Sylvia S. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 4816, pp. 23-32 (2002).

Publication Date: 9/2002


In order to assist Rescue and Recovery personnel after 11 September 2001, Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate was requested to collect a variety of airborne electro-optic data of the WTC site. The immediate objective was to provide FDNY with geo-rectified high-resolution and solar reflective hyperspectral data to help map the debris-field. Later data collections included calibrated MWIR data. This thermal data provided accurate temperature profiles, which could be warped to the high-resolution data. This paper will describe the assets and software used to help provide the FDNY data products, which were incorporated into their GIS database. (source) (cached_copy) NVIS Sensor Suite

25-Feb-2003 Initial Estimates from AVIRIS of the Temperature and Fractional Areas of Fires at the World Trade Center Disaster

Green, R. O.; Clark, R. N.; Boardman, J.; Pavri, B.; Sarture, C.

Original Paper ftp://popo.jpl.nasa.gov/pub/docs/workshops/02_docs/toc.html

appears to be identical (with a different title) to:

25-Feb-2003 Initial estimates of the temperature and fractional areas of fires at the World Trade Center Disaster from AVIRIS

Green, R. O.; Clark, R. N.; Boardman, J.; Pavri, B.; Sarture, C.

Photocopy of paper (Information Page) (Information Page 2)

Excerpt: Based on the results with the data measured on the 16th of September 2001, AVIRIS was requested to over fly the World Trade Center disaster site on the 18th of September. A subset of an image from that overflight is shown below. In this data set acquired on the 18th, hot-fire areas were identified and labeled from A to L. The A to H designations were selected to match the areas of the 16th of September data set. The additional hot areas—J to L—were not identified in the data set from the 16th September overflight. This increase in hot-fire areas on the 18th may be due to increased sophistication in identifying hot areas or to the occurrence of new hot areas.

Conclusion: On the 14th of September 2001, a request was made for AVIRIS to acquire spectral measurements over the World Trade Center disaster site for detection of asbestos contamination in the debris. AVIRIS measurements were acquired on the 16th of September. Rapid examination of the data showed spectral expression of hot fires in the World Trade Center debris. A simple Planck-function-based spectral-fitting algorithm was applied to the AVIRIS-calibrated radiance spectra to estimate the temperature and fractional area of the highest-intensity AVIRIS spectrum in each identified area of hot fires. The location, temperature, and fractional area derived for the eight zones identified in the 16th of September data set were delivered to the teams on the ground. Based on these rapid results, AVIRIS was requested to acquire additional data on the 18th of September. A similar analysis was performed estimating the temperature and fractional areas of the highest intensity spectra of the identified area of hot fires for this data set. Overall, the derived temperatures of the analyzed spectra from each of the hot zones decreased from the 16th to the 18th. In one case, no hot spectrum was identified on the second date. As with the results from the 16th, the hot-fire location, temperature, and fractional area derivations were provided to the ground teams to help understand and mitigate risk.

6-Mar-2002 Determining the location, temperature and fractional area of hot fires at the World Trade Center disaster site

Green, R. O.; Clark, R.; Boardman, J.

Photocopy of paper

(Information Page)

(Information Page 2)

An evaluation of the role played by remote sensing technology following the World Trade Center attack

Charles K. Huyck, Dr. Beverley J. Adams, David I. Kehrlein

Paper Other Link (Abstract) (Abstract 2)

Multisensor fusion over the World Trade Center disaster site

Craig Rodarmel, Lawrence Scott, Deborah Simerlink, Jeffrey Walker


Direct link to PDF

01-Dec-2002 Environmental Mapping with Imaging Spectroscopy of the World Trade Center Area After the September 11, 2001 Attack:

Clark, R. N.; Swayze, G. A.; Hoefen, T.; Livo, E.; Sutley, S.; Meeker, G.; Plumlee, G.; Brownfield, I.; Hageman, P.; Lamothe, P.; Gent, C.; Morath, L.; Taggart, J.; Theodorakos, T.; Adams, M.; Green, R.; Pavri, B.; Sarture, C.; Vance, S.; Boardman, J.

(event home page) Presented at the American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2002, San Francisco, CA, USA

[16020948 16027124 /data2/epubs/wais/data/fm02/fm02.txt Abstract P51C-09] (Harvard abstract search)

Lending A Helping Hand: Using Remote Sensing to Support the Response and Recovery Operations at the World Trade Center

PE & RS September 2002




Ray A. Williamson and John C. Baker


Williamson, R.A.[Ray A.], Baker, J.C.[John C.],

Lending A Helping Hand: Using Remote Sensing to Support the Response and Recovery Operations at the World Trade Center,

PhEngRS(68), No. 9, September 2002, pp. 870-896.

HTML Version. 0304 BibRef



10-Oct-2002 Fire temperature and fractional area derivations over the World Trade Center disaster site from imaging spectrometer measurments

Green, R. O.; Clark, R. N.; Boardman, J.

(event home page) Publication: 34th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, The Second World Space Congress, held 10-19 October, 2002 in Houston, TX, USA

Abstract COSPAR02-A-00015 (Harvard abstract search) (JPL search)

Photocopy of abstract

(Information Page)

(Information Page 2)

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Abstract: As part of the World Trade Center disaster response, the NASA Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) was flown over the site on the 16th and 18th of September 2001. AVIRIS measures the solar reflected spectrum from 370 to 2500-nm at 10-nm sampling. For this flight the data were acquired at 1.5-m spatial sampling with image coverage of the entire disaster site. AVIRIS measurements are spectrally, radiometrically, spatially calibrated in the laboratory and validated in flight. Rapid examination of the World Trade Center AVIRIS data in the 2300 nm spectral region showed numerous high radiance targets indicative of burning fires. A new spectroscopic algorithm was implemented to simultaneously solve for thee temperature and fractional area of the fires. This algorithm uses the Planck function in conjunction with the full spectral shape measured by AVIRIS to determine the temperature and fractional area of the fire. This spectral algorithm overcomes the ambiguity between temperature and area that exists in single -spectral-b a n d temperature estimation methods. With these AVIRIS data set and new algorithm, 8 hot spot zones were identified in the September 16th data with temperatures ranging from 700K to 1019K and fractional areas from 1.1 to 18-%. Analysis of the data set acquired on September 18th showed 7 of the hot spot zones still present with temperatures ranging from 471K to 952K and fractional areas from 0.5 to 36-%. These imaging spectrometer derived physical parameters of fire temperature and fractional-area were found useful to the personnel making decisions on the ground. The complete set measurements, analyses, and results of this effort are reported in this paper.

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